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From Italy to Cyprus via Hungary: A look back at key events in Europe

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US-China trade war is 'on hold'

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Is GDPR a good thing for EU tech companies?

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EUROPE NOW

We take you to the 28 EU member states for a series of exclusive reports and interviews with local MEPs. Produced in partnership with the European Parliament. Saturday at 12.10 pm.

Latest update : 2012-07-27

EU enlargement

Europe District takes you on a journey across the nine countries seeking to join the European Union. See how they size up.

ALBANIA
• 28 November 1912 – Independence from the Ottoman Empire
• 1945-1985 – ruled by dictator Enver Hoxha
• 1992 – Fall of Communism
• 1999 – Albania officially becomes EU candidate
• 2009 – Albania joins NATO
• Official language – Albanian
• Capital – Tirana
• Parliamentary Republic – President: Bamir Topi ; Prime Minister: Sali Berisha
• Area – 28,748 sq km
• Population – 3.5 million
• Currency – Lek
• National anthem – Hymni i Flamurit (Hymn to the Flag)


BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (BiH)
• 1st March 1992 – Independence from Yugoslavia
• 1992-95 – War in the country claims 100,000 lives
• 1995 – The Dayton Agreement puts an end to the war
• 2008 – Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU
• Official languages – Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian
• Capital – Sarajevo
• Semi-direct democracy – Head of the Council of Ministers: Vjekoslav Bevanda
• Tripartite Presidency – Željko Komšić, Nebojša Radmanović, Bakir Izetbegović
• Area – 51,197 sq km
• Population – 3.8 million
• Currency – Convertible Mark (BAM)
• National anthem – Intermeco


CROATIA
• 25 June 1991 – Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia
• 1992 – International recognition
• 1995 – War with Serbia and Montenegro ends
• 2005 – Opening of negotiations with the EU
• December 2011 – EU Member States decide to close accession negotiations with Croatia
• 2013 – Croatia expected to become the EU’s 28th member
• Official language – Croatian
• Capital – Zagreb
• Parliamentary democracy – President of the Republic: Ivo Josipović ; Prime Minister: Zoran Milanović
• Area – 56,5421 sq km
• Population – 4.4 million
• Currency – Kuna
• National anthem – Lijepa naša domovino (Our beautiful Homeland)


ICELAND
• 1944 – Independence from Denmark
• October 2008– Collapse of the Banks
• January 2009 – Resignation of the Government
• June 2010 –Start of accession talks
• Language – Icelandic
• Capital – Reykjavik
• Republic – President:Olafur Ragnar Grimsson; Prime Minister: Johanna Sigurdardottir • Area – 103,001 km2
• Population – 324,000 inhabitants
• Currency –Icelandic Krona (ISK)
• National anthem – Lofsöngur

KOSOVO
• 1998-1999 – Persecution of ethnic Albanians by Milosevic’s forces
• March 1999 – NATO intervention
• June 1999 – Kosovo is placed under UN administration
• 17 February 2008 – Kosovo unilaterally declares independence from Serbia. Recognized by 22 EU member states
• Languages – Albanian, Serbian, Bosnian and Turkish
• Capital – Pristina
• Republic – President: Atifete Jahjaga ; Prime Minister: Hashim Thaçi
• Area – 10,887 sq km
• Population – 1.8 million (estimated)
• Currency – Euro (without being a member of the Eurozone)
• National anthem – Europe


F.Y.R. of Macedonia
• 1991 – Independence
• January-August 2001 – armed conflict opposes ethnic Albanian rebels and pro-government forces
• December 2005 – FYROM officially becomes EU candidate
• Official languages – Macedonian, Albanian
• Capital – Skopje
• Republic – President: Gjorge Ivanov ; Prime Minister: Nikola Gruevski
• Area – 25,713 sq km
• Population – 2 million (estimate) 2002 census: ethnic Macedonians (64.2 %) and ethnic Albanians (25.2 %)
• Currency – Denar (MKD)
• National anthem – Denes Nad Makedonija (Today over Macedonia)

MONTENEGRO
• 3 June 2006 – Declaration of Independence and dissolution of the union with Serbia
• 17 December 2010 – Montenegro officially becomes EU candidate
• Official – Montenegrin
• Capital – Podgorica
• Area – 13,812 sq km
• Population – 630,000
• Parliamentary Republic – President: Filip Vujanović ; Prime Minister: Igor Lukšić
• Currency – Euro (without being a member of the Eurozone)
• National anthem – "Oh, Bright Dawn of May" (Oj, svijetla majska zoro)


SERBIA
• 1980 – Death of communist dictator Josip Broz Tito
• 1989-2000 – Slobodan Milosevic leads Yugoslavia on a course of conflict and violent disintegration
• 1999 – NATO strikes
• 2009 – Serbia formally submits its application to join the EU
• Official language – Serbian
• Capital – Belgrade
• President – Boris Tadić ; Prime Minister: Mirko Cvetković
• Area – 88,3611 sq km
• Population – 7.2 million
• Currency – Serbian Dinar
• National anthem – Bože Pravde (God of Justice)

TURKEY
• 29 October 1923 – Fall of the Ottoman Empire
• 1963 – EEC-Turkey Association Agreement
• 1999 – Turkey officially becomes EU candidate
• October 2005 – Formal opening of accession negotiations
• Official language – Turkish
• Capital – Ankara ; country’s largest city: Istanbul
• Parliamentary democracy – President of the Republic: Abdullah Gül ; Prime Minister: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
• Area – 783,562 sq km
• Population – 73 million
• Currency – Turkish lira
• National anthem – İstiklâl Marşı (Independence March İstiklâl Marşı)


 

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2018-03-03 Cyprus

Reunifying Cyprus: Hopes and fears, 44 years on (part 2)

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2018-03-03 Cyprus

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Barbed wire, checkpoints, abandoned buildings and military bases: all of these are common sights in Cyprus - a country that remains split in two, 44 years after the Turkish...

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2017-12-22 Spain

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2017-12-22 Spain

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2017-09-29 European Union

Austria: Far right knocks on the doors of power (part 2)

For this episode of Europe Now, our Europe editor Catherine Nicholson digs deeper into the hot topics of the moment in the EU's two German-speaking member states.

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