If you build it, will they come? The city of Bilbao in the north of Spain launched a massive urban regeneration project in the 1990s. The centrepiece was the opening of the city's Guggenheim museum. Millions of visitors have since arrived to boost the local economy. This has been billed the "Bilbao effect" and many cities are hoping to emulate its success.
The French city of Lens, for example, has recently seen the opening of a branch of the Louvre museum, and locals are hoping to cash in. So how likely are they to succeed?
Report by A.Laïdi, S. de la Forterie
Head of competitiveness studies, I7, Institute for innovation and competitiveness