Georgia's conflict with Russia, from 1989 to 2009

Disputes between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia's status go back 20 years to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union.


1989 – Soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November, South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia, prompting three months of conflict.


1990 – New clashes erupt between Georgian and South Ossetian troops in December; fighting continues until 1992.


1991 – On Aug. 9, Georgia declares independence from the Soviet Union.


1992 – Russian, Georgian and South Ossetian leaders sign a ceasefire agreement at Sochi.


2002 – South Ossetia’s president asks Moscow to recognise its independence and asks to be integrated into the Russian Federation.


2004 – Mikheil Saakashvili elected president of Georgia.


April 2008 – Russia’s then president, Vladimir Putin, re-establishes ties with his counterparts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia; Georgia calls the move a violation of international law.


Aug. 4, 2008 – South Ossetian separatists claim at least six people killed by Georgian artillery.


Aug. 7, 2008 – Georgia launches a major offensive in South Ossetia.


Aug. 8, 2008 – Russia responds to the Georgian operation by sending rocket fire and troops into the enclave as well as into Georgia proper.


Aug. 10, 2008 – Georgia withdraws from Tskhinvali, proposes ceasefire.


Aug. 11, 2008 – Russia calls on Georgian forces on the Abkhazian border to disarm; Georgia refuses. Saakashvili claims Moscow is looking to overthrow his government.


Aug. 22, 2008 – Russian troops complete their withdrawal from Georgian territory under a French-brokered peace deal. Russian peacekeeping forces remain in areas of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

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