Georgia's conflict with Russia, from 1989 to 2009
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Disputes between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia's status go back 20 years to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
1989 – Soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November, South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia, prompting three months of conflict.
1990 – New clashes erupt between Georgian and South Ossetian troops in December; fighting continues until 1992.
1991 – On Aug. 9, Georgia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
1992 – Russian, Georgian and South Ossetian leaders sign a ceasefire agreement at Sochi.
2002 – South Ossetia’s president asks Moscow to recognise its independence and asks to be integrated into the Russian Federation.
2004 – Mikheil Saakashvili elected president of Georgia.
April 2008 – Russia’s then president, Vladimir Putin, re-establishes ties with his counterparts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia; Georgia calls the move a violation of international law.
Aug. 4, 2008 – South Ossetian separatists claim at least six people killed by Georgian artillery.
Aug. 7, 2008 – Georgia launches a major offensive in South Ossetia.
Aug. 8, 2008 – Russia responds to the Georgian operation by sending rocket fire and troops into the enclave as well as into Georgia proper.
Aug. 10, 2008 – Georgia withdraws from Tskhinvali, proposes ceasefire.
Aug. 11, 2008 – Russia calls on Georgian forces on the Abkhazian border to disarm; Georgia refuses. Saakashvili claims Moscow is looking to overthrow his government.
Aug. 22, 2008 – Russian troops complete their withdrawal from Georgian territory under a French-brokered peace deal. Russian peacekeeping forces remain in areas of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
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