Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia reach agreement to end Nagorno-Karabakh fighting

File photo: A woman visits a makeshift memorial outside the Armenian embassy in Moscow for Armenians killed during the conflict over the breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh, October 20, 2020.
File photo: A woman visits a makeshift memorial outside the Armenian embassy in Moscow for Armenians killed during the conflict over the breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh, October 20, 2020. © Natalia Kolesnikova, AFP/File

Armenia and Azerbaijan agreed on a deal with Russia to end weeks of fierce clashes over Nagorno-Karabakh on Tuesday, after a string of Azerbaijani victories in its fight to retake the disputed region.


The announcement of a full ceasefire sparked outrage in Armenia, with angry protesters storming the government headquarters in Yerevan where they ransacked offices and broke windows.

Crowds also seized control of parliament, calling from inside the chamber for the resignation of Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan after he announced the “painful” deal to the end the fighting.

“I have signed a statement with the presidents of Russia and Azerbaijan on the termination of the Karabakh war,” Pashinyan said, calling the move “unspeakably painful for me personally and for our people”.

“I have taken this decision as a result of an in-depth analysis of the military situation,” he added.

Azerbaijan’s President Ilham Aliyev said Pashinyan had been left with no choice but to sign the “historic agreement”.

‘A capitulation’

“An iron hand forced him to sign this document,” Aliyev said in televised remarks. “This is essentially a capitulation.”

Russian President Vladimir Putin confirmed that both Armenia and Azerbaijan had agreed to “a total ceasefire” that would create the conditions for a long-term settlement of the conflict.

He said the two sides would hold on to areas under their control and that Russian peacekeepers would be deployed along frontlines and to secure a corridor connecting Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenian territory.

Russian news agencies quoted the defence ministry as saying 1,960 peacekeepers would be deployed with 90 armoured vehicles.

Aliyev said Armenia had agreed to a timetable to withdraw its forces from large parts of the region and that Azerbaijan’s ally Turkey would be involved in implementing the ceasefire.

The deal would end six weeks of fierce clashes over Nagorno-Karabakh, an ethnic Armenian region of Azerbaijan that broke away from Baku’s control during a bitter war in the 1990s.

The conflict—which has simmered for decades despite international efforts to reach a peace deal—erupted into fresh fighting in late September.

More than 1,300 people have been confirmed killed, including dozens of civilians, but the actual death toll is believed to be significantly higher.


Strategic town seized

Azerbaijani forces made steady gains over the weeks of fighting, sweeping across the southern flank of Nagorno-Karabakh and eventually into the region’s heartland.

A turning point came on Sunday when Aliyev announced that his forces had captured Shusha, the region’s strategically vital second-largest town.

Shusha sits on cliffs overlooking Nagorno-Karabakh’s main city Stepanakert and on the main road to Armenia, which backs the separatists.

Armenia insisted earlier on Monday that fighting for the town was continuing but a local separatist official admitted that Shusha was “completely out of our control”.

The ceasefire deal came just hours after Azerbaijan admitted to accidentally shooting down a Russian military helicopter flying in Armenia.

Moscow’s defence ministry said two crew members were killed when the Mi-24 helicopter was hit close to the border with Azerbaijan. A third crew member was injured and evacuated.

Azerbaijan quickly apologised and blamed the incident on the “tense situation in the region and increased combat readiness” of its forces.

The helicopter was shot down near the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan between Armenia and Turkey, far from Nagorno-Karabakh.

Mounting anger in Armenia

Russia has a military pact with Armenia and a base in the country, but had insisted it would not get involved in the conflict with Azerbaijan unless Armenian territory itself came under threat.

Karabakh declared independence nearly 30 years ago but the declaration has not been recognised internationally, even by Armenia, and it remains a part of Azerbaijan under international law.

Fighting broke out between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the disputed separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh on September 27.
Fighting broke out between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the disputed separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh on September 27. © France24 / Studio graphique

Repeated attempts at ceasefires brokered by France, Russia and the United States—who together lead the “Minsk Group” that has sought for years to end the conflict—repeatedly failed over the last few weeks.

Azerbaijan has been pushing for Turkey’s involvement in a settlement and the new deal came after Putin spoke with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Saturday.

Anger had already been mounting in Armenia ahead of the agreement, with 17 opposition parties on Monday calling on Pashinyan and the rest of his government to immediately resign.

The parties said in a statement that Armenia’s leaders bore “the entire responsibility for the situation” in Karabakh.

“The authorities have lost their moral and political basis to represent the people,” they said.

France says deal must 'preserve Armenia's interests'

On Tuesday, French President Emmanuel Macron called for a "lasting political solution" to the conflict and urged Turkey to "end its provocations". 

France, home to a large Armenian population, has crossed swords repeatedly with Turkey on a range of issues, including Nagorno-Karabakh.

Macron's office said it was studying the parameters of the Russian-brokered ceasefire, adding that a long-term deal should also "preserve Armenia's interests".

Macron's office quoted him as saying that efforts should be made "without delay" to try to come up with a "lasting political solution to the conflict that allows for the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh to remain in good conditions and the return of tens of thousands of people who have fled their homes."

Earlier in the day, Putin said displaced people would be able to return to Nagorno-Karabakh and prisoners of war would be exchanged.

A spokesman for the Kremlin said there had been no agreement on deploying Turkish peacekeepers in the disputed region, but that the Turkish military would help staff a joint monitoring centre with Russian forces.

(FRANCE 24 with AFP)

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